Friday, May 22, 2020
Understanding and Supporting Behaviour DJ1N 34 Outcome 1 Marianne McNeillis HNC Social Care Group B Due Date: 8/10/14 Submission Date: /10/14 Word count: 1571 Challenging behaviour can be explored in every client group however the client group explored here is older adults within informal care. Due to the Data Protection Act 1998 the name of the older adult involved in the care has been changed to Client X. Why challenging behaviour occurs can be explored and explained through many different avenues such as through the use of psychological theories and situational factors that can effect behaviour. A class discussion found a definition of challenging behaviour to be Ã¢â¬ËDifficulty breaking though to or working with an individual/groupÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a way of helping Client X she was given as much independence as possible to try and make the transition easier. As she became used to the carers coming into the house she soon became glad of the company due to being unable to get out of the house on her own. This then grew an element of trust between the client and the carer which meant that she was then more willing to participate with the carers and would communicate with them on a regular basis. Challenging behaviour can be explained through the use of psychological theories, MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, and his hierarchy of needs is based on motivation and that every person is driven to grow into a self-actualised person (Bingham et.al. 2009:86). MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs has six stages; Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Love and Belonging Needs, Self-Esteem Needs, Fulfilment Needs and Self-actualisation. This theory relates to Client X because all her physiological needs are being met through the attention of her carers. Some of her safety needs are being met through safety of family and she has a home, however due to having to take medication every day and being unable to walk without the use of a walking aid is affecting her sufficiently meeting all of her safety needs. This would then cause Client X to display challenging behaviour because she wanted to be more independent and be able to walk withoutShow MoreRelatedUnderstanding and supporting behaviour 21825 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesincident/ pattern of behaviour at my placement for the subject understanding and supporting behaviour. This assessment has to be handed in on the 21st of May 2013. Due to the confidentiality of the young people at Rathbone and the Data Protection Act 1998 I will refer to the particular young person who is involved in the incident as Jack. At Rathbone which is my placement there are various incidents of challenging behaviour that occur on a daily basis. One particular pattern of behaviour which is displayedRead Morelevel 3 supporting teaching learning Essay1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshazards to health, safety and security of children or young people, families and other visitors and colleges. Task6: demonstrate ability to deal with hazards in the work setting or in off site visits. Task 11: give example from own practise of supporting children and young people to asses and manage risk. Assignment 4 Task 1: describe the duties and responsibilities of own work role. Task 4: demonstrate the ability to reflect on practise. Task 7: demonstrate use of feedback to evaluate own performanceRead MoreM3.10 Introduction to Leadership and M3.36 Leading a Team Effectively966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmeant by Ã¢â¬Ëhaving a common sense of purposeÃ¢â¬â¢ is not addressed, or is incorrect Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is meant by Ã¢â¬Ëhaving a common sense of purposeÃ¢â¬â¢ is described or listed, but there is no explanation as to why Ã¢â¬Ëhaving a common sense of purposeÃ¢â¬â¢ is important for supporting the organisation or a project Ã¢â¬ ¢ The key role that communication plays in establishing a common sense of purpose is not addressed, or is incorrect Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communication is described, or methods of communication are listed, but there is no explanationRead MoreEssay on National Occupational Standards1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdescribe the knowledge and understanding that is required in order to be competent in a support role. In addition, the NOS are widely used in relation to training and professional development, described by the TDA as Ã¢â¬Ësupporting the learning process in schools.Ã¢â¬â¢ (NAPTA: 2009) NOS provide a valuable resource to schools that use them to assist in the creation of job descriptions and roles and responsibilities, as well as underpinning training, progression and supporting development needs of staffRead MorePsychology and Young People Essay1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesName________________________ Assessment Plan 304 Promote children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s positive behaviour Evidence requirements | Complete() | 1.Signed completed assessment plan (in plastic wallet) | | 2.Review of City and Guilds | | 3.Discussion with Assessor | | 4.Completed assessment form | | 5.Reflective journal | | 6.Checklist signed and completed | | Assessment plan issued date by: | Assessor:Learner: | Date: | | Assessment plan submission plan agreed by: | Assessor:Learner:Read More4dep 1684 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesProfessional Areas, 8 Behaviours and 4 bands of Competence. fig 1. http://www.cipd.co.uk/cipd-hr-profession/profession-map/default.aspx The Professional areas Describes what the HR professional needs to do (activities) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Core These apply to all HR professionals, regardless of role, and define how the can sustain organisational performance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Function These focus more on specialist areas within an organisation. Behaviours Describes the behaviours needed to carry out theRead MoreEssay on HLTA ASSIGNMENT 1925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschildren teenagers, special needs or gifted and talented. It is also recommended that HLTAS have a sound knowledge of ICT to allow this to be implanted across the curriculum and in order to adhere to certain procedures within the school such as using behaviour programmes online or for cross curriculum to be implanted. Policies and procedures are also required for HLTAS to be aware of and able to draw upon when and if needed, also to allow HLTAS to know the policies the school has on safeguarding, bullyingRead MoreThe Legislation Regarding Safeguarding And Chid Protection1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesas a child protection concern when there are possible reasons to suspect the childÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering or likely to suffer significant harm. To address and overcome the potential harm of bullying every setting has behaviour policy and anti-bullying policy and procedures. In my setting Behaviour and preventing and tackling bullying policies help individuals working with children: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify what is bullying. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understand seriousness of bullying, both physical and emotional Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify the proceduresRead MoreLeon Festingers Theory Of Cognitive Dissonance1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdissonance in the world of social psychology. Throughout I will discuss the establishment of his theory, itÃ¢â¬â¢s supporting evidence and any limitations of this. I will also deliberate what it can explain and the alternative explanations presented by other psychologists; how they differ from FestingerÃ¢â¬â¢s, how they add to FestingerÃ¢â¬â¢s original theory and finally how they extend the knowledge in understanding the interaction between thoughts and actions to question the position of rivalry over cohesion betweenRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Development1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthrough childhood, and reaching maturing in adolescence, of being male or female, or of the gender associated with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sexÃ¢â¬ . Gender role is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a set of behaviour patterns, attitudes, and personality characteristics stereotypically perceived as masculine or feminine within a cultureÃ¢â¬ (Colman, 2009). Understanding gender development is important because the perception of gender identity affects the roles individuals play in society. If the reason behind the gender differences can be
Friday, May 8, 2020
International Terrorism Ã¢â¬â The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Challenge Today Today the threat of terrorism is becoming more and more serious. Terrorism is considered the greatest threat against the safety of the world, and especially the USA, today. The extent of the terrorism has increased significantly over the last couple of years, since the terrorist attacks against the US on the 11th of September 2001. After these attacks former president of the US, George Bush declared a war against terrorism. There are various opinions about what can be defined as terrorism. Because there are so many situations that can be defined as terrorism, it is be very difficult to find an exact definition. Many countries have different definitions, and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Two of them were flown into the two main buildings of the World Trade centre in New York. One airplane was crashed into the Pentagon, and the last airplane crash-landed in a field in Pennsylvania. After these attacks the USA decided to attack Afghanistan. The leader of Al-Qaida is Osama Bin Laden who has been hiding from the US troops ever since the war started. The reasons for Al-QaidaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are based on the Islamic Ã¢â¬Å"ShariaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â laws. They want to fight the states they consider a threat against Islam, and especially the USA and Israel. The Al-Qaida leaders encourage all Muslims to kill American citizens, both military and civilians. We can separate the terrorist actions into two main groups; local and international terrorism. Local terrorism consists of actions such as suicide missions, car bombings and so on. International terrorism is actions where the citizens and/or territory of several countries are affected. There are many situations that can lead to the use of terrorism. Terrorism can occur in both poor as well as wealthy countries, and in both democracies and states under different kinds of dictatorship. However, terrorism is most likely to occur in countries that are characterized by poverty and oppression. People in poor countries might feel like they are subjected to an unfair distribution of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. Poverty is claimed to be an underlying part of all the causes of terrorism. Terrorism is a global issue that hasShow MoreRelatedThe Fundamentals Of Globalization On The National Security Strategy 20151632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescritical aspects in which, global economic malaise and violet extremism can adversely affect two of the four interests. Those two interests are the security of US citizens and allies, and a strong and prosperous international economy. Violet extremism is by far the greatest challenge of the two. Globalization is an appealing concept that has many various interpretations and definitions. Globalization is the expanding connectivity and interconnectedness between diverse geographic nations to increaseRead MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand writers are writing about the biggest threats of the world. Several reports are also made to understand the recent global threats. In order to write something about the recent global threats, one word comes to our mind that is terrorism. Terrorism is related extremism, as terrorist people are extremists in their belief. Biggest terrorist group like ISIS is also an Islamic extremist group. In these years we have observed shameful actions in the name of religion. Conflicts between religiousRead MoreInternational Order : The United States1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages To start with, what is international order? International order can be defined as an order in which countries are ranked internationally. These countries are ranked based on their economy and GDP, their Geopolitical zone, hard power (army, navy, air force), soft power (diplomatic means, export, import). As of right now, the United States is ranked as the first country in the international economic order, and following the United States is China. This order is what controls the demand and the supplyRead MoreChanges in Europe Since the Fall of the Soviet Union, Effects and Issues.1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbut like every change it came with confusion and difficulty and left the people of Eastern Europe wanting answers to their questions and solutions to their problems. Despite the gear towards democracy that had begun under soviet rule, it posed a challenge for many countries of Eastern Europe. While Gorbachev held power, policies such as the reconstructing of the Soviet Union, and reducing the censorship of information this newfound freedom had the people eager for more. When the Soviet Union CollapsedRead MoreGlobilization is the Enemy of Democracy Essay626 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesexternal control by controlling cross-country negotiations. A demonstration like no other in Seattle last fall had two results. It paused the World Trade Organization and reintroduced the issue of globalization to the political scene. America today has a very healthy economy. Very low unemployment rates. Stock markets soaring with new highs nearly every day. Although many economist are arguing contrarily to whatÃ¢â¬â¢s factual. Some economist believe that our economy is entering a new stage ofRead MoreThe Middle East1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArmageddon in the Middle East. Populations reduced to dust by nuclear war. International actors drawn into tense conflict and potentially world-altering violence. These are the fears held by the U.S. and Israel when considering the possibility of Iranian nuclear weapons. However, the attitudes of the Obama administration in discussing potential deals with Iran have demonstrated a change in the U.S. strategy when interacting with an Iranian regime that desires nuclear capability. In recent monthsR ead MoreThe Internet And Its Effects On The Environment1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescriminals, terrorists, or foreign espionage for their own purposes. The movement of the nature of threats from physical to virtual dimensions has created a major shift in the development of strategies by the government around the world to meet the new challenges. In 2010, the Canadian government has published Ã¢â¬Å"Canada s cyber security strategy: For a stronger and more prosperous CanadaÃ¢â¬ , a strategic platform to secure the Canadian cyberspace. However, although embracing cyber technology and obtain considerableRead MoreInsurance and Lloyd Essay2263 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesorganisation to remain the leading insurance market. Good afternoon ladies and gentleman. Welcome to the presentation. Today, I am going to discuss the following question: Ã¢â¬ How being constantly original supports LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s to remain the leading insurance market?Ã¢â¬ Before I start describing and analyzing the true effect of this unique brand idea on maintaining the status of LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading specialist insurance market, we need to understand what it really stands for. Being constant is aboutRead MoreA Great Matter Of Concern Today Or Just A Bust?1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A Great Matter of Concern Today or Just a Bust? Marvin Patani Communications Essentials Ã¢â¬â COMM1016-41 Professor Mark Dorsey Wednesday, October 29, 2014 Ã¢â¬Æ' A Great Matter of Concern Today or Just a Bust? While India is on the verge of being the most populated country. While the third world countries are deprived of their resources rapidly. People in the United States have to say that the problem of over population has been curbed and infant production rateRead MoreThe Impact of Climate Change Upon Australia Essay3661 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesaction to cut carbon emissions is not taken. This paper recognizes that climate change, which can be defined as the gradual increase in temperature caused by the increased production of carbon dioxide, presents a fundamental national security challenge. This paper recognises that the Australian climate has increased significantly since 1910. Evidence is provided to suggest that Australia has a climate-sensitive economy, as the variations in climate and damage caused by extreme weather conditions
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization of America until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. [l] Small early attemptsÃ¢â¬ such as the English Lost Colony of RoanokeÃ¢â¬ often disappeared; everywhere the death rate of the first arrivals was very high. We will write a custom essay sample on Colonial history of the United States or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nevertheless successful colonies were established. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups. No aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen arrived. Diversity was an American characteristic as the Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the English Quakers of Pennsylvania, the English Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the Ã¢â¬Å"worthy poorÃ¢â¬ of Georgia, came to the new continent and built colonies with distinctive social, religious, political and economic styles. Occasionally one colony took control of another (during wars between their European parents). Only in Nova Scotia (now part of Canada) did the conquerors expel the previous colonists. Instead they all lived side by side in peace. There were no major civil wars among the 13 colonies, and the two chief armed rebellions (in Virginia in 1676 and in New York in 1689-91) were short-lived failures. Wars between the French and the BritishÃ¢â¬ the French and Indian Wars and Father RaleÃ¢â¬â¢s WarÃ¢â¬ were recurrent, and involved French support for Wabanaki Confederacy attacks on the frontiers. By 1760 France was defeated and the British seized its colonies. The four distinct regions were: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region, the Frontier, which was never separately organized. [l] By the time European settlers arrived around 1600-1650, the majority of the Native Americans living in the eastern United States had been decimated by new diseases, introduced to them decades before by explorers and sailors. How to cite Colonial history of the United States, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"No, not everyone has a father,Ã¢â¬ proclaimed the six year old girl. Since my conception my identity has been influenced by an unusual circumstance, which is my definition of family: my mother and myself. My being is credited to an anonymous male donor. Despite popular belief, donor is not synonymous with father. I have shared this fact frequently, most often to correct peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions about the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"family.Ã¢â¬ As I have grown and continually faced and responded to assumptions in regards to myself and my family, I have acquired the confidence to embrace my difference as an asset. Kindergarten and first-grade were magnificently ordinary at my private and diverse elementary school. It was just as common for a student to have two dads or two moms as it was to have one dad and one mom. No one questioned why I only had one parent as the school welcomed many blended families. We will write a custom essay sample on Speaking Truth to Power or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But when I enrolled in public school in a traditional middle class community where MothersÃ¢â¬â¢ and FathersÃ¢â¬â¢ Day were celebrated like national holidays, perceptions shifted. I began receiving questions: Ã¢â¬Å"Why is your family tree only half completed?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Did your dad die?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why werenÃ¢â¬â¢t you at the father-daughter dance?Ã¢â¬ Tentative and fearful of rejection, I avoided answering. As time progressed and the questions persisted, my six year old self hesitantly confronted curiosity and conjectures by sharing my truth. To my surprise, some people refused to accept my definition of family. I was met with support and understanding as well as disbelief. Although it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep me up at night, I began to realize that my situation made some people uncomfortable. I interpreted the visible discomfort of some adults as distaste, and wondered if their judgement of what was natural and normal excluded me. Surrounded by a majority of Ã¢â¬Å"tradi tionalÃ¢â¬ mom-dad families, I knew my world was different. I was uncharacteristically silent and awkward in new situations. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure how to respond to commonplace phrases (Ã¢â¬Å"take this home to your mom and dadÃ¢â¬ ) or outright assumptions (Ã¢â¬Å"everybody has a fatherÃ¢â¬ ). The environment of middle school encouraged and fostered conformity. Normality was embraced and differences hidden. Although few comments were directed at me, I was aware and terrified that my difference would be exposed in certain environments, especially in Spanish class, which required partners to create a presentation about a classmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ family. When I was partnered with my good friend, I was beyond relieved. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to explain that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a father as he already knew! My anxiety emerged again when the projects were presented in class. Head down, I listened to my partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s quick presentation where no dad was mentioned. As I stared at the floor listening to the description of my mom in Spanish, I realized that my silence out of fear of rejection showed shame and ignominy. High school opened doors of acceptance. Now it was Gender and Sexuality Alliance Day that was celebrated like a national holiday. As people started embracing their differences, I began to feel more comfortable sharing mine. When my basketball coach inquired about my family junior year, I confidently stated, Ã¢â¬Å"My family is my mom, who is a single mother by choice.Ã¢â¬ My coach responded Ã¢â¬Å"Is your father in the picture?Ã¢â¬ After explaining that I had a donor rather than a father, my coach apologized profuselyfor Ã¢â¬Å"asking too much.Ã¢â¬ With Anita HillÃ¢â¬â¢s words in mindÃ¢â¬Å"speaking truth to powerÃ¢â¬ my internal thoughts, experiences, and responses that had been brewing ever since I entered public school finally came to fruition. With pride, I expressed my love for my family and insisted that my coach should not apologize for inquiring about it. At this moment I finally realized that differences are an empowering asset. My social anxiety transformed to personal acceptance and social advocacy for others. I embrace the freedom.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The prospects of finding life elsewhere in the Solar System Thirteen thousand years ago, a dazzling meteor flashed into existence in the skies above Antarctica. As it ploughed earthwards, the heat of its fall ripped apart the atoms of the air, leaving behind a brilliant trail that lit up the icy landscape. It would have made a beautiful sight, if anybody had been there to see it. The meteor's surface melted, then vapourised, and as the rocky ball tore towards the ground it slowly shrank. Ordinarily such an object would have been completely destroyed long before making contact with our planet's surface, but this one was not. A small chunk - about two kilograms of it - survived the fall, and lay there, hot and steaming, on the cold Antarctic ice. Most meteorites that are found on Earth are simply interplanetary debris - small pieces of junk left over from the violent formation of our Solar System, four and half billion years ago. But this particular meteorite was special. It had come from Mars, blasted from its home planet fifteen million years ago by a cosmic impact even more spectacular than the one in which it fell to Earth. This potato-shaped lump of rock, codenamed ALH84001 by the scientists who first discovered it, was a messenger from another world. And buried deep within its baked interior lay what may have been humanity's first tantalising glimpse of an alien lifeform. Every few years, the red disc of Mars passes particularly close to the Earth, and human observers are afforded an especially good view of the planet that has fascinated mankind since ancient times. This fortunate configuration of the planets is known to astronomers as a "favourable opposition", and one such event occurred in the year 1877. Among the many observers who turned their telescopes towards the Red Planet in that year was the Italian Giovanni Schiaparelli, who was surprised to see a network of dark, greenish lines criss-crossing the planet's rusty ... Free Essays on Are We Alone Free Essays on Are We Alone The prospects of finding life elsewhere in the Solar System Thirteen thousand years ago, a dazzling meteor flashed into existence in the skies above Antarctica. As it ploughed earthwards, the heat of its fall ripped apart the atoms of the air, leaving behind a brilliant trail that lit up the icy landscape. It would have made a beautiful sight, if anybody had been there to see it. The meteor's surface melted, then vapourised, and as the rocky ball tore towards the ground it slowly shrank. Ordinarily such an object would have been completely destroyed long before making contact with our planet's surface, but this one was not. A small chunk - about two kilograms of it - survived the fall, and lay there, hot and steaming, on the cold Antarctic ice. Most meteorites that are found on Earth are simply interplanetary debris - small pieces of junk left over from the violent formation of our Solar System, four and half billion years ago. But this particular meteorite was special. It had come from Mars, blasted from its home planet fifteen million years ago by a cosmic impact even more spectacular than the one in which it fell to Earth. This potato-shaped lump of rock, codenamed ALH84001 by the scientists who first discovered it, was a messenger from another world. And buried deep within its baked interior lay what may have been humanity's first tantalising glimpse of an alien lifeform. Every few years, the red disc of Mars passes particularly close to the Earth, and human observers are afforded an especially good view of the planet that has fascinated mankind since ancient times. This fortunate configuration of the planets is known to astronomers as a "favourable opposition", and one such event occurred in the year 1877. Among the many observers who turned their telescopes towards the Red Planet in that year was the Italian Giovanni Schiaparelli, who was surprised to see a network of dark, greenish lines criss-crossing the planet's rusty ...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Gustav Kirchhoff and Kirchhoff's Laws for Electrical Circuits Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (March 12, 1824Ã¢â¬âOctober 17, 1887) was a German physicist. He is best known for developing KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, which quantify the current and voltage in electrical circuits. In addition to KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, Kirchhoff made a number of other fundamental contributions to physics, including work on spectroscopy and blackbody radiation. Fast Facts: Gustav Kirchhoff Full Name: Gustav Robert KirchhoffOccupation: PhysicistKnown For: Developed Kirchhoffs laws for electrical circuitsBorn: March 12, 1824 in KÃ ¶nigsberg, PrussiaDied: October 17, 1887 in Berlin, GermanyParentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Names: Carl Friedrich Kirchhoff, Juliane Johanna Henriette von WittkeSpouses Names: Clara Richelot (m. 1834-1869), Benovefa Karolina Sopie Luise BrÃ ¶mmel (m. 1872) Early Years and Education Born in KÃ ¶nigsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia), Gustav Kirchhoff was the youngest of three sons. His parents were Carl Friedrich Kirchhoff, a law counselor devoted to the Prussian state, and Juliane Johanna Henriette von Wittke. KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s parents encouraged their children to serve the Prussian state as best as they were able. Kirchoff was an academically strong student, so he planned to become a university professor, which was considered a civil servant role in Prussia at that time. Kirchhoff attended Kneiphofische High School with his brothers and received his diploma in 1842. After graduating high school, Kirchhoff began studying in the Mathematics-Physics department at the Albertus University of KÃ ¶nigsberg. There, Kirchhoff attended a mathematics-physics seminar from 1843 to 1846 developed by the mathematicians Franz Neumann and Carl Jacobi. Neumann in particular had a profound impact on Kirchhoff, and encouraged him to pursue mathematical physics Ã¢â¬â a field which focuses on developing mathematical methods for problems in physics. While studying with Neumann, Kirchhoff published his first paper in 1845 at age 21. This paper contained the two KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, which allow for the calculation of the current and voltage in electrical circuits. Kirchhoff's Laws KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s laws for current and voltage are at the foundation of analyzing electrical circuits, allowing for the quantification of current and voltage within the circuit. Kirchhoff derived these laws by generalizing the results of OhmÃ¢â¬â¢s law, which states that the current between two points is directly proportional to the voltage between those points and inversely proportional to the resistance. KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s first law says that at a given junction in a circuit, the current going into the junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving the junction. KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s second law says that if there is a closed loop in a circuit, the sum of the voltage differences within the loop equals zero. Through his collaboration with Bunsen, Kirchhoff developed three KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s laws for spectroscopy: Incandescent solids, liquids, or dense gases Ã¢â¬â which light up after they are heated Ã¢â¬â emit a continuous spectrum of light: they emit light at all wavelengths.A hot, low-density gas produces an emission-line spectrum: the gas emits light at specific, discrete wavelengths, which can be seen as bright lines in an otherwise dark spectrum.A continuous spectrum traversing through a cooler, low-density gas produces an absorption-line spectrum: the gas absorbs light at specific, discrete wavelengths, which can be seen as dark lines in an otherwise continuous spectrum. Because atoms and molecules produce their own unique spectra, these laws allow for the identification of atoms and molecules found in the object being studied. Kirchhoff also performed important work in thermal radiation, and proposed KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s law of thermal radiation in 1859. This law states that the emissivity (ability to emit energy as radiation) and absorbance (ability to absorb radiation) of an object or surface are equal at any wavelength and temperature, if the object or surface is at static thermal equilibrium. While studying thermal radiation, Kirchhoff also coined the term Ã¢â¬Å"black bodyÃ¢â¬ to describe a hypothetical object which absorbed all incoming light and thus emitted all of that light when it was maintained at a constant temperature to establish thermal equilibrium. In 1900, the physicist Max Planck would hypothesize that these black bodies absorbed and emitted energy in certain values called Ã¢â¬Å"quanta.Ã¢â¬ This discovery would serve as one of the key insights for quantum mechanics. Academic Career In 1847, Kirchhoff graduated from KÃ ¶nigsberg University, and became an unpaid lecturer at Berlin University in Germany in 1848. In 1850, he became an associate professor at Breslau University and in 1854 a professor of physics at Heidelberg University. At Breslau, Kirchhoff met the German chemist Robert Bunsen, after whom the Bunsen burner was named, and it was Bunsen who arranged for Kirchhoff to come to Heidelberg University. In the 1860s, Kirchhoff and Bunsen showed that each element could be identified with a unique spectral pattern, establishing that spectroscopy could be used to experimentally analyze the elements. The pair would discover the elements cesium and rubidium while investigating the elements in the sun using spectroscopy. In addition to his work in spectroscopy, Kirchhoff would also study blackbody radiation, coining the term in 1862. His work is considered fundamental to the development of quantum mechanics. In 1875, Kirchhoff became the chair of mathematical physics at Berlin. He later retired in 1886. Later Life and Legacy Kirchhoff died on October 17, 1887 in Berlin, Germany at the age of 63. He is remembered for his contributions to the field of physics as well as his influential teaching career. His Kirchhoffs laws for electrical circuits are now taught as part of introductory physics courses on electromagnetism. Sources Hockey, Thomas A., editor. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer, 2014.Inan, Aziz S. Ã¢â¬Å"What did Gustav Robert Kirchhoff Stumble Upon 150 Years Ago?Ã¢â¬ Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 73Ã¢â¬â76.Ã¢â¬Å"KirchhoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Laws.Ã¢â¬ Cornell University, http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/kirchhoff.htm.Kurrer, Karl-Eugen. The History of the Theory of Structures: from Arch Analysis to Computational Mechanics. Ernst Sohn, 2008.Ã¢â¬Å"Gustav Robert Kirchhoff.Ã¢â¬ Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics, and You, 2015, https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/timeline/people/kirchhoff.html.OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, J. J., and Robertson, E. F. Ã¢â¬Å"Gustav Robert Kirchhoff.Ã¢â¬ University of St. Andrews, Scotland, 2002.Palma, Christopher. Ã¢â¬Å"KirchoffÃ¢â¬â¢s Laws and Spectroscopy.Ã¢â¬ The Pennsylvania State University, https://www.e-education.psu.edu/astro801/content/l3_p6.html.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Stove Pipe stucture v.s Line Manager - Research Paper Example Organizational structure may be defined as the method through which the use of a hierarchy such as groups, business, organizations, or people cooperate to achieve success of one common goal. Business organizational structures differ depending on their objective, scope, and size. However, a good structure should reflect hierarchical duties, division of labor and tasks arranged related directly to a goal. A structure may also be seen as an organizational chart. Organizational structures can be classified differently depending on the nature and size of organization. A structure can be traditional, divisional or matrix. Traditional structures are usually based on the functional divisions and departments. Organizations with traditional structures often follow laid out rules and regulations strictly, they also have a well defined authority structure for all levels of management. The structures include the line structure that has a line of command; line and staff structure that is a combination of the line structure where information comes from the top level to the bottom levels, with staff departments for support and specialization; and functional structure that is a classification of people according to the function they perform in the organization, for example, sales, accounts, human resource or administrative. Divisional structures are specifically based on the divisional differences in the organization. This structure is further divided into product structure whereby the organization of employees and the work to be done is on the basis of the different types of products produced by the organization; market structure that involves grouping employees on the basis of the market the company sells their products and geographic structure that follows a zonal region structure. Matrix structure is a combination of the functional and product structures. It aims to combine the best of both structures to make an organization and its structure more