Saturday, January 25, 2020
Marketing Strategy For Entering New Zealand Market Marketing Essay Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand. It has approximately 401,500 people live within the city boundary and 1.25 million in the greater Auckland area. This represents about one third of the population of the whole country. Auckland City (informally Central Auckland) is the city and local authority covering the Auckland isthmus and most of the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, in the North Island of New Zealand. It lies in the Auckland Region, and the Auckland Regional Council is also based in Auckland City. In 2009, it was rated the 4th best place to live in the world, in human resources consultancy Mercers annual survey.Ã Thus, Auckland is a potential market. In order to market Auckland, we are going to launch out Malaysia local foods, satay. Satay is a type of foods that are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, then served with various spicy seasonings. Satay is cheap and easily prepared if you are experienced worker. We are launching traditional satay which has six types of satay meat. Six types of satay meats that we launched out are mutton, beef, rabbit, deer, chicken, and fish. We will produce our own secret recipe that cannot be found in others place. It is use to attract the local market of Auckland. Our objective is to lets the foreigner experience new flavour and new sensation of Malaysia local food. In making consideration of the health issues, our satay is modified to be less oil, less calories and less fat. We will set up our own outlet that has traditional design of Malaysia style. Customers can feel the Malaysian culture when they come to our outlet. Waiter and waitress in our outlet are required to wear the custom of Malaysian style. The speciality of our outlet is customers are able to see the satay producing process. Besides that, online purchase service also available. Customers can either purchase satay directly from our outlet or indirectly by online booking. These make them more convenience. Delivery services are also provided and free of charge if it is within specific area. Price Price is one of the important issues in marketing mix that determine whether a product can be success or not. Price that we offer is following ethical issue. We are using penetration strategy to attract the customers. Difference types of satay meats are charge at difference prices. Customers can get special discount when they reach certain level of consumption. Low price but high quality of foods is provided. There is no price discrimination to end customer which is an illegal actions. Promotion Promotion efforts that we offered to local people of Auckland are include flyers, newspaper, free sample, cash vouchers, delivery services and weekly discount. If we can promote our products and outlet well, customers will automatically come to us. Flyers and newspaper are more economic ways to promote certain product. Due to we are relatively new in Auckland, we have to heavily promote our products and outlets to reach the sales. Free sample for testing are only available in the first three months of opening. As a conclusion, we are target to tourists and local people in Auckland. In short term, we wish to add on new types of satay such as satay celup and satay lok-lok. We will expand to other city in New Zealand when the market is mature and able to expand. Macro environment analysis PESTEL analysis Introduction PESTEL analysis is an external analysis of the macro-environment in which a business operates. The main objective is to understand the affect of those reasons on business or trade policy because external factors of a country are different within each others. Therefore, we should choose a suitable location to operate the business by viewing the analysis to ensure that the business has potential to enter the country. The country that we had chosen to analyse is in New Zealand which is Auckland. Our analysis is based on three main factors which are political and legal factor, economy factor and finally social and culture factor. Political and legal factor To run a business at other country, one of the important factors which affect trade policy is their legal rules, regulations and their government. Each of the worlds national government regulates trade and commerce with other countries and controls the access of outside enterprises to national resources. The operations and activities of the global enterprise, including the global marketers ability to address market opportunities and threats are affected by every countrys unique legal and regulatory system. The risk is lesser if the government is stable. This is because legal rules and regulations would not be change in short period. In Auckland, the risk of operating new business is high. This is because after every three year, the new government of New Zealand will apply new rules and regulations which benefit for an organization. So, although a business can going into the market in this year, but it does not meant that it can permanently set up at Auckland due to the new rules and regulations. Therefore, before our satay business is going in the market of Auckland, we need to analysis and do estimation on the rules and regulations of Auckland. This is to ensure our business can live longer at Auckland and can survive in Auckland market. Beside the risk of operate business, the labour force is very expensive in New Zealand. Labour force in New Zealand is highly appreciated, thus the labour are given high salary. The labour force in Auckland is also same situation with New Zealand. Due to the high labour force, we planned to assign some of the workers from Malaysia to operate the business in Auckland. This can save our operating expenses. However, we still need to hire local workers because of the local people more understanding the rules and regulations of their own country. Thus, if there are changes in rules and regulations in New Zealand, we can do some adjustment pander to the changes. To operate new business, every organization needs a vast amount of money. The lending rate in New Zealand is high, company has to paid more interest. This situation could be good for the government but it might reduce the profit of a company. The capital of our satay business needs to be high to prevent lending money from government of New Zealand. Exporting a business to New Zealand is already high cost activity, if our business still needs to bare the high lending interest, it will be very hard to earn profits. This is because the profits had been used to pay the high lending interest. Thus, our business needs to have a large amount of capital to export the business to Auckland. Business freedom in New Zealand is 99. 9 % and trade freedom is 84.6 %. It meant that New Zealand has better environment to do business and trading. Due to the freedom of government of New Zealand, our satay business can be exported to Auckland. There is less restriction on doing business in Auckland. The government allows the business to create their own market. Any business that the businessmen want to do, they can apply for the license. The license will always be approved by the government. Therefore, we can easily bring our satay business into Auckland. Economy Factor Inflation rate is less in New Zealand. If inflation rate is low, every commodity and service such as labour, rice, sugar and others products will available at low price where as the organization can produce more. Therefore, we can buy the local products with a low price and fully utilized the resources to increase the productivity. By the lower price of resources, we can launch our business successfully because we need not to worry about the high operating expenses. We can spend our money in other activities that need more investment such as advertising. In New Zealand, people prefer to spend more to help carry on the circulation of money all over the country by buy capital goods, luxuries products and necessary products. This meant that they support their local products. They like to buy their own country product to help the economic growth. In this situation, we decide to buy mutton and beef from New Zealand. We will let our consumers know that our satay is made by the mutton and beef come from their own country. Since they are supporting local products, they will tend to support our satay that produced by local mutton and beef. Moreover, the unemployment rate in New Zealand is low. The citizen will have their own work. Therefore, they have purchasing power that allowed them to buy the products they like. The consumers will consume from the shop because they have money to consume products that they prefer. Our satay is not very expensive compare to local food. If the consumers found that our satay is much better than their expectation, the will consume more. Once the food is cheaper and delicious than other, the consumers can be attracted easily. Social and Culture factor Every country has different culture to each other. New Zealand has majority of Christians religion. According to the 2006 census, Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, which have 55.6% of the population, another 34.7% had no religion and around 4% affiliated with other religions. The Christians have no much restriction about the food that take. Not like Muslims, they have more restriction on food. Therefore, the Christians can choose the food they prefer to have. Besides, the consumption and imports of foods and beverage and electronic gadgets will increase during festival like Christmas in New Zealand. This is because the Christians are concern on their special festival. They prefer cook some special foods and invite their relatives and friends to have a gathering. Thus, our satay maybe can be a choice for them to serve their relatives and friends. Moreover, New Zealand is concern in education sector. 99% of populations are literate in New Zealand. Education sector contributed 6.2% to New Zealand GDP. New Zealand is famous on education sector. Many foreign students are study English and mostly foreigner study in university at New Zealand. One of the famous universities in New Zealand is University Of Auckland. The floating population in Auckland is high due to the famous university. This is an opportunity for our business to launch in Auckland. The population is high and we can target on the students. Students always dare to try new things and they always search for new things to try. Thus, we can attract the students by promoting our satay to them. Furthermore, life expectancy rate is more and mortality rate is low in New Zealand. This is because their lifestyle is free and less stress, they do not like to stay in stressful life. They prefer leisurely lifestyle. After work, they would not think about the work again. They will clear their mind and enjoy their rest time. Thus, they like to do some leisure activities such as go for a walk in the park. One of the famous parks in Auckland is Albert Park. The Auckland citizen will visit to the park during their leisure time. Therefore, we can target on this group of people. They maybe will like to have their meal after they tired and feel hungry because our satay shop is near the park. By giving some flyers to the people, they will acknowledge that there have a stall just set up and they maybe will try it. Conclusion As a conclusion, our business should do enough survey and analysis before going into the New Zealand market to ensure that our business can successfully launch at Auckland. Moreover, the analysis will help us to prevent loss because it does not make sense if we export a business that does not have potential market in the country. In such situation, we will not bring the business into the country. Thus, we will not jump into the loss stage in business because of launching a failure business in a not suitable country. Besides, we can also reduce the risk of operating new business in foreign country if we practise macro environment analysis. This is because we have enough knowledge about the environment factors of the country and we have to judge whether the country has potential for us to export the business. Furthermore, our satay business is discovering a new market in Auckland because there were few store that selling satay. Satay is considered as a new product because satay is a type of traditional food from Malaysia. If the local people have noticed that our satay is met their expectation on food, they will eat at our store. Global Market Segmentation Introduction Market segmentation is an effort to identify and categorize a group of customers and countries according to common characteristics such as gender, income and education level. Global Market Segmentation is defined as the process that identifies specific segments of potential customers with homogeneous attributes who exhibit similar responses to a marketing mix. There are five types of Global Marketing Segmentation which are demographic, psychographic, behavioural characteristics, benefit sought and ethnic. Our satay shop is using the demographic segmentation and psychographic segmentation. Demographic segmentation Demographic segmentation is based on characteristics such as income, population size, age distribution, gender, education, and occupation. We have chosen the income to segment the market. We have segmented the market by using income. There are three level of income segmentation which is high income level, middle income level and low income level. High income level is referred to the people that have income NZ$ 5000 and above each month. Middle income level is referred to the people that have income NZ$ 3500 to NZ$ 5000 each month. While income below NZ$ 3500 is considered as low income level. These situations are because of the living costs in New Zealand is very high. The activities that involve labour force will charge at a high price. The rental of house is also very high in New Zealand. Psychographic segmentation Psychographic segmentation is grouping people by their attitudes, values and lifestyles. By analyze the attitudes, values and lifestyles of the people, we can segment them into different groups. There are several groups of people that stay in Auckland which are students and citizen of Auckland. Students have a high floating population because New Zealand is famous and concern on its education sector. Therefore, there are many local and foreign students that study in Auckland. Citizen is the local people that born and live in Auckland. Different groups of people have different attitudes, values and lifestyle. We are segmenting them based on two aspects which are values and lifestyle. From values aspects, the students are daring to try new things. Thus, promoting is encouraged to the students. They can easily be attracted and dare to try for the things. Meanwhile the citizen is more traditional because they had been affected by the culture. They need to be given more information to motivate them to try the new things. Moreover, from lifestyle aspects, the students are tried to save their living costs. Therefore, they will seldom having meals at the shops. They will cook at home to save the money. Our satay is selling at a low price that afford by the students. Besides, the citizen of Auckland also preferred leisurely lifestyle. From our analysis, we found that the citizen of Auckland do not think about the work after the ended of working hours. So, they can have meals at our shop to reduce their annoyance for what to cook for the day. Conclusion There are different values for students and citizen of Auckland but both of them have similar lifestyle. Therefore, different promotion strategies have to use to attract these groups of people. By segmenting the market into smaller groups, we can determine what we can do to attract the consumers and gain the market share. Targeting Introduction Targeting is defined as the process of evaluating the segments and focusing marketing efforts on a country, region, or group of people that has significant potential to respond. Such targeting is reflected to the reality that a company should identify consumers to reach most effectively, efficiently, and profitably. We are target on middle income level people and mainly target in students. Middle Income Level People We are targeting on middle income people because middle income people will always find for the foods that are delicious but not looking at the price to judge whether the food is good or not. High income people always look for the food that is expensive. They will perceive price as the quality of the food. Thus, we are not aiming for high income people. Middle income people are our target. Middle income people will seldom perceive the price as the quality of the foods. Therefore, they will be attracted if the food is delicious and met their expectation. However, the price of satay is not very high compare to other local food in Auckland. Therefore, for the people that having a low income also can taste our satay. Students Students have a high floating population in Auckland because of the famous of education sector in New Zealand. Students are our target is because the values of students. The mind set of students are more open, they dare to try. Thus, if the promotion can attract their attention, they will find out whether the food is good or not. They can accept new taste more easily. Besides, to save the living costs in Auckland, many students have tried to cook by their own. However, sometimes they have no time for cook. Thus, our satay shop can help them solve the problems. The price of satay is not very expensive and they can have their meals in our shop. It is a low spending and also brings convenience to them. Conclusion By concentrate on target market, we can understand better what the market wants and needs. We can try to fulfil the needs and wants of the consumers to bring more satisfaction to them for maintaining our long term relationship that may affect our profits in long term. Justification of new business venture Why our company choose satay as our new venture to enter Auckland, New Zealand? There are few reasons that prove there are opportunities on our product. Everything starts with the customer. We pride ourselves in knowing whats going on in the minds of our consumers. We spend vast amounts of time each year researching the markets where we operate and our customers changing tastes and lifestyle habits. We know what our customers want now. Fusion of Asian recipes In restaurants and at home, New Zealanders are enthusiastic about the fusion of traditional Asian recipes with fresh New Zealand produce. Authentic ingredients for Asian cooking are available in most supermarkets and specialty food stores. This means that New Zealanders can accept well and quite interests on Asian cooking style. So, satay also can be accepted by New Zealanders, since satay is also one of the most popular foods toward Asian and it has a very high potential market value in food industry. It can be seen when the tourist having their vocation in Malaysia, they like to try local foods such as nasi lemak and laksa. No or less competitions Since satay is Malaysias local foods, it is only little or few competition for us. in New Zealand, thus our company biggest advantage is we are the pioneer in producing satay in New Zealand. So, our company will not face any competitor in same sector. Besides that, New Zealand is a very good place for growing things. At present, much of what we grow is on the basis of potential export receipts (cows, pines). So, our company will not facing any shortages in raw resources such as beef. Since New Zealanders like to eat beef, so our company will firstly decide to produce beef satay by fresh beef to introduce to domestic citizens. Low start-up cost Another reason that make we choose Auckland to start new venture is our company has advantage such as low start-up cost and low producing cost .Since satay is a quite simple food to produce, the material handling cost are low. It does not require investing in research and development. It just requires some labour skills and fixed machine. We have to paid fixed amount of salaries to employ the experience workers and buying the machine. Besides that, New Zealand is famous with the production of cow and sheep. From the date that we recovery ,we found out that the number of sheep and cow in New Zealand are more than nine times if compared with the population in New Zealand. We can easily get raw material from local supplier. It saves a lot of cost. We also no need to worry about shortage of raw material. Lifestyle Malaysian is looking for fast foods to counter caused by their busy lifestyles. The lifestyles of New Zealanders are slightly difference with Malaysian. They are very busy and serious during work. So, as a result they do not bring work into home. They know how to enjoy their life. Our company is decide to make satay as a part of fast food which can satisfied those who are always in busy lifestyle since it is easy to consume. However, nowadays, consumers are also looking for foods to counter poor health caused by busy lifestyles, insufficient exercise and fast food. As a consequence, people all over the world are recognizing that diet is important to their health. So our company will introduce low fat satay which can let consumer eat in a healthier way but still can taste a delicious satay. Our satay is low calories, low fat and less oil. Besides that, consumers want to know that their food is safe, and proof of claims is becoming a key requirement, especially in the health benefit ar ea. Certification and tracking of food production for safety reasons is increasing. There is a growing desire for safe food. Our company products are all have been clinically tested and proven that satay is safe to eat. As a conclusion, the above reasons make our company interested to start new venture in Auckland. It is really an interested facts that encourage we to do so. Product strategy Satay The product that we plan to launch out in Auckland, New Zealand is satay. Satay can be found throughout every state in Malaysia either in restaurant or beside street. Popular kinds of satay are usually pork satay, beef satay, and chicken satay. Difference cultures may have difference types of satay. For an example, Indonesias satay is different with Singapores satay. A variation of meat satay is the satay lok-lok from Penang and satay celup from Malacca. Raw meat pieces, tofu pieces, century eggs, quail eggs, fish cake pieces, offal or vegetable pieces are skewered on bamboo sticks. These are cooked by being dipped in boiling water or stock. The satay is eaten with a blackish sweet sauce with or without chili sauce. If the satay is eaten with satay sauce, it is called satay lok-lok. If the satay is cooked with boiling satay peanut sauce, it is called satay celup. This is available either from street vendors or at certain restaurants. We are selling traditional satay in Auckland. We do not selling satay lok-lok or satay celup. When the market share are increase and become more stable, we will try to add on other types of satay. There are total six types of satay meat that we will launch out in Auckland. The six types of meat satay are chicken, mutton, beef, deer, fish, and rabbit. As you can see, we do not sell pork satay. This is because one of our target markets is tourists. The tourists may be including other religion such as Muslim. In order to attract this type of tourists, we do not launch out pork satay. Different types of satay will be selling at different price. The satay that we sell is in the form of string. Before the satay are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, it must first marinate by turmeric and other seasoning. Turmeric will be used to marinate satay, which gives the dish its characteristic yellow colours. After marinated, satay is stringed to the midrib of the coconut leaf. After that, satay will be grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal. We are using traditional ways to grill the satay. The charcoal fire can make satay tasty. Lastly, satay is served with various spicy seasonings. We will serve our satay with a spicy peanut sauce dip, or peanut gravy, slivers of onions and cucumbers, bread and ketupat (rice cakes). Our sauce includes ground chilli, onion, tomato, shrimp, oil, and nuts inside. We also will make our secret recipe sauce to attract difference taste of customers. Customers can choose either they want spicy sauce or sweet sauce. Beef and mutton that our restaurant will use is all origin from New Zealand. This is because European prefers to eat beef and mutton that origin from their own country. Besides that they also more trusted to those which are come from their country since it has been approve by their Hygienic Agency that the meat is totally safe to be eat and free of harmful virus. Thus, European are also culture that support to their country so if our restaurant use material that origin from their own country it will encourage them to purchase more in our restaurant and also will ensure them come back over and over again. People nowadays are more concern about their health. They no longer prefer oily foods. If we did not customization our satay to meet local demand, then it will bring failure for us. Due to this, our satay is modifying to become less oil and less salts. We are also following the ethical issue. We will definitely provide clean and healthy satay. We will ensure that the supplier will provide us healthy meats and are ethically. Besides that, all of our workers are need to wearing gloves to ensure the cleanliness. Experienced cook and worker are employ in our outlet to make sure the flavour of satay will perform well. Herbal tea Our restaurant also provides traditional Chinese herbal tea such as chrysanthemum tea, Chinese watermelon tea, barley, siraitia prosvenorii (luo han guo) and herbal jelly . We provide Chinese herbal tea is because herbal tea can bring many health benefits for humans body. The health benefits of herbal tea are capable of keeping balance, control over cholesterol, clearing heat, neutralizing toxins, and protecting the liver. Since our satay are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, herbal tea can help our consumer clearing heat and neutralizing toxins after eating the satay. Teh tarik and others Furthermore, because our food is a traditional food in Malaysia, we also have provide traditional drinks in Malaysia such as teh tarik . Teh tarik is a common and favourite drink for Malaysians. Teh tarik is very easy to prepare because the ingredients are black tea and condensed milk. However, we also will provide sky juice and soft drinks for our consumers. This is because not all the consumers can accept the taste of Chinese herbal tea and local teh tarik. We need to provide some drinks which acceptable by the consumers. Distribution Channel We will distribute our satay by two ways, either by own outlet or online mode. Outlet We will open our first satay shop in Auckland. We will set up our own and specific outlet in New Zealand. We are using Malaysian styles of design. When customers walk in to our outlet, they will feel and experience the Malaysian style. Waiter and waitress are required to wear Malaysia customs. Therefore, when customers are visiting to our outlet, they can really impressed by our culture. One speciality of our outlet is customers can see the process of producing satay. Our restaurants seat can be found in personal seat, couple seats, four person seats, six person seats, and ten person seats. Customers can choose either to dine in or take away. Besides the residents, it also consists of the most potential customer for our shop. There are many students that study in this city no matter local students or foreign students. Students like to hanging around after school with their friends whether they go to shopping mall or having their meal together. Usually they prefer special meal that th ey seldom or never taste before. They will also take consideration into the price issue. Our satay is suitable food for them. Satay is a kind of food that origin from Malaysia. So, it is quite special and unique in Auckland. For sure students will like it since them always curious and excited to something that is relatively new for them and them willing to pay for a try. Besides that, Auckland is the retail and commercial centre of New Zealand. Workers that have monthly salary will have a higher purchasing power which also means that they also are our shop important potential customer. A higher purchasing power will encourage them to purchase more in our shop. Workers also like to find some place to relax after they finish their work in office. Our shop provides them a place to enjoy their delicious meal, have a good conservation with their friends, and a place to enjoy the culture of others. Another important potential customer is tourism. Auckland is the gateway to New Zealand for tourism and immigration. Every year there are more than 6digits of tourism that tour to Auckland and this provide our shop a chance to earn money from them. Our shop provides a perfect environment for tourism to rest and full their empty stomach. Our shop will have a good view of seaside in front of our shop which will present a comfortable environment for our customer while they enjoying their meal especially for tourism who purposely come to Auckland because of the beauty of landscape of Auckland. Drive-thru service We will open a drive-thru window to lets customers enjoy more convenience services. Due to the busy lifestyle, consumers are more prefer the fast services. They try to find out ways that bring convenience for them. Citizen of Auckland prefers drive their own vehicle to travel. As we know that, 95% of Auckland citizen are travelling by their own vehicles. Therefore, the parking lots maybe is insufficient for the number of vehicles. Thus, we should have drive-thru service to provide convenience for consumers who cannot find the parking lots. Besides that, drive-thru service also convenience for office workers. This is because during lunch time hour, they are prefer meal which is fast and easy to consume. For them, drive thru service will become their first choice service because they can get their meal at the time and straight away can drive their vehicle leave the restaurant. Furthermore, for consumer who ordering food from our officer website, they also can get their food from drive thru service in order to save their time for searching to the parking lot. Sometimes there are not enough seats for consumers during peak season such as Christmas and New Year celebration. For consumers who want to eat our satay but do not have patient to waiting for our restaurant seats, they may just purchase satay by using our drive thru service and enjoy satay at their home with their friends and family. Online mode For online mode, customers can visit to our restaurants officer website to make their orders. Menu will be display in our officer website. Picture of meals and drinks will be display in the menu so that customer can easily know what foods are available. These make them easy to make order too. Quality and time can be selected inside the order blanket. Besides that, customers can also select type of meat that they want for their satay. Type of sauces will be serving based on the customers want and needs. Customers can also order drinks previously at our officer website if they not willing to waste time
Friday, January 17, 2020
| Courtroom Work Groups| Jaraka Ward| | University of Phoenix| 10/21/2012| | I found several responses to the question of who is included in the courtroom work group. I believe that the criminal prosecutor, defense attorney, and a judicial officer make up the most common courtroom work group. The daily interaction of this group is to make sure that rules are being followed in each individual group but also to make sure it is given in a timely manner. The courtroom work group needs to communicate in order to offer plea bargains and choose jurors.The role of the prosecutor is to protect the government or communityÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests. This being said the prosecutor must take cases based on the facts of each case and the evidence provided. If the prosecutor did not do this and took every case under less stringent requirements it could leave many cases going to trial with a lack of evidence and lead to a waste of court room time and money for attempting a trial with no evidence to co nvince a jury. This could also lead to innocent people being convicted on no evidence simply because of a well-spoken lawyer.This being said, if the prosecutors were more stringent about the cases they took and the minimum amount of evidence was greater it may lead to criminals getting away with more crimes and never being brought to trial because of a lack of concrete evidence. The only way I see that the courtroom work group could be improved would be if all parties focused more on the justice and rules side rather than always focusing on the speedy aspect of getting things done.There will always be the criminals let go because of a lack of evidence to convince a jury as well as innocent people who will be convicted without proper concrete evidence, this is why I am a strong believer in the appeal system. I do however feel that these numbers could be reduced if we could slow the system down while still maintaining due process and a speedy trial. References Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century, Eleventh Edition, by Frank Schmalleger (2012, 08). Courtroom Workgroups. StudyMode. com. Retrieved 08, 2012, from http://www. studymode. com/essays/Courtroom-Workgroups-1070144. html
Thursday, January 9, 2020
A stateÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy consists of the strategies it uses to protect its international and domestic interests and determines the way it interacts with other state and non-state actors. The primary purpose of foreign policy is to defend a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s national interests, which can be in nonviolent or violent ways. Key Takeaways: Foreign Policy Foreign policy encompasses the tactics and process by which a nation interacts with other nations in order to further its own interestsForeign policy may make use of diplomacy or other more direct means such as aggression rooted in military powerInternational bodies such as the United Nations and its predecessor, the League of Nations, help smooth relations between countries via diplomatic meansMajor foreign policy theories are Realism, Liberalism, Economic Structuralism, Psychological Theory, and Constructivism Examples of Foreign Policy In 2013 China developed a foreign policy known as the Belt and Road Initiative, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to develop stronger economic ties in Africa, Europe, and North America. In the United States, many presidents are known for their landmark foreign policy decisions such as the Monroe Doctrine which opposed the imperialist takeover of an independent state. A foreign policy can also be the decision to not participate in international organizations and conversations, such as the more isolationist policies of North Korea. Diplomacy and Foreign Policy When foreign policy relies on diplomacy, heads of state negotiate and collaborate with other world leaders to prevent conflict. Usually, diplomats are sent to represent a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy interests at international events. While an emphasis on diplomacy is a cornerstone of many states foreign policy, there are others that rely on military pressure or other less diplomatic means. Diplomacy has played a crucial role in the de-escalation of international crises, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 is a prime example of this. During the Cold War, intelligence informed President John F. Kennedy that the Soviet Union was sending weapons to Cuba, possibly preparing for a strike against the United States. President Kennedy was forced to choose between a foreign policy solution that was purely diplomatic, speaking to the Soviet Union President Nikita Khrushchev or one that was more militaristic. The former president decided to enact a blockade around Cuba and threaten further military action if Soviet ships carrying missiles attempted to break through. In order to prevent further escalation, Khrushchev agreed to remove all missiles from Cuba, and in return, Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba and to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey (which was within striking distance of the Soviet Union). This moment in time is significant because the two governments negotiated a solution that ended the current conflict, the blockade, as well as de-escalated the larger tension, the missiles near each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s borders. The History of Foreign Policy and Diplomatic Organizations Foreign policy has existed as long as people have organized themselves into varying factions. However, the study of foreign policy and the creation of international organizations to promote diplomacy is fairly recent. One of the first established international bodies for discussing foreign policy was the Concert of Europe in 1814 after the Napoleonic wars. This gave the major European powers (Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia) a forum to solve issues diplomatically instead of resorting to military threats or wars. In the 20th Century, World War I and II once again exposed the need for an international forum to de-escalate conflict and keep the peace. The League of Nations (which was formed by former U.S. President Woodrow Wilson but ultimately did not include the U.S.) was created in 1920 with the primary purpose of maintaining world peace. After the League of Nations dissolved, it was replaced by the United Nations in 1954 after World War II, an organization to promote international cooperation and now includes 193 countries as members. It is important to note that many of these organizations are concentrated around Europe and the Western Hemisphere as a whole. Because of European countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ history of imperialism and colonization, they often wielded the greatest international political and economic powers and subsequently created these global systems. However, there are continental diplomatic bodies such as the African Union, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, and Union of South American Countries which facilitate multilateral cooperation in their respective regions as well. Foreign Policy Theories: Why States Act as They Do The study of foreign policy reveals several theories as to why states act the way they do. The prevailing theories are Realism, Liberalism, Economic Structuralism, Psychological Theory, and Constructivism. Realism Realism states that interests are always determined in terms of power and states will always act according to their best interest. Classical Realism follows 16th-century political theorist NiccolÃ ² MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s famous quote from his foreign policy book The Prince: Ã¢â¬Å"It is much safer to be feared than loved.Ã¢â¬ It follows that the world is full of chaos because humans are egoistic and will do anything to have power. The structural reading of realism, however, focuses more on the state than the individual: All governments will react to pressures in the same way because they are more concerned about national security than power. Liberalism The theory of liberalism emphasizes liberty and equality in all aspects and believes that the rights of the individual are superior to the needs of the state. It also follows that the chaos of the world can be pacified with international cooperation and global citizenship. Economically, liberalism values free trade above all and believes the state should rarely intervene in economic issues, as this is where problems arise. The market has a long-term trajectory towards stability, and nothing should interfere with that. Economic Structuralism Economic structuralism, or Marxism, was pioneered by Karl Marx, who believed that capitalism was immoral because it is the immoral exploitation of the many by the few. However, theorist Vladimir Lenin brought the analysis to an international level by explaining that imperialist capitalist nations succeed by dumping their excess products in economically weaker nations, which drives down the prices and further weakens the economy in those areas. Essentially, issues arise in international relations because of this concentration of capital, and change can only occur through the action of the proletariat. Psychological Theories Psychological theories explain international politics on a more individual level and seek to understand how an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology can affect their foreign policy decisions. This follows that diplomacy is deeply affected by the individual ability to judge, which is often colored by how solutions are presented, the time available for the decision, and level of risk. This explains why political decision making is often inconsistent or may not follow a specific ideology. Constructivism Constructivism believes that ideas influence identities and drive interests. The current structures only exist because years of social practice have made it so. If a situation needs to be resolved or a system must be changed, social and ideological movements have the power to bring about reforms. A core example of constructivism is human rights, which are observed by some nations, but not others. Over the past few centuries, as social ideas and norms around human rights, gender, age, and racial equality have evolved, laws have changed to reflect these new societal norms. Sources Elrod, Richard B. Ã¢â¬Å"The Concert of Europe: A Fresh Look at an International System.Ã¢â¬ Ã World Politics, vol. 28, no. 2, 1976, pp. 159Ã¢â¬â174.Ã JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2009888.Ã¢â¬Å"The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962.Ã¢â¬ Ã U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis.Viotti, Paul R., and Mark V. Kauppi.Ã International Relations Theory. 5th ed., Pearson, 2011.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Impression Management approach to Public Relations: New or Old? According to LÃ¢â¬â¢ Etang (2007), Impression Management in the past appeared to be a tactic of manipulation in Public Relations. As the theory governs a process to construct an image, PR practitioners were accused of being image makers who use symbols or messages to control how the organization is perceived (Grunig, 1993, p. 125). Grunig describes images makers as people who Ã¢â¬Å"create and project an image out of nothingÃ¢â¬ and in agreement, his research proposed that this production of organizationally controlled messages for the purpose of manipulating media images was indeed manipulation. In Addition, LÃ¢â¬â¢Etang, states Ã¢â¬Å"In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s Impression Management was seen as something artificial that interfered with real and authentic relationships. In the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s it was acknowledged as a form of behaviour but seen as invariably negative and as deceptive and manipulation.Ã¢â¬ Dubrin (2011) seems to agree with the previous statement as his study was based on the past actions of Public Relations and made reference to Impression Management as spin. He states Ã¢â¬Å"An Impression Management tactic aimed at hundreds or even thousands of people at the same time is spin, or putting a favourable face on a negative situation or person. Spin is part of public relations except that public Relations is also used to bring attention to favourable events such as a company undergoing a major expansion or making a large contribution toShow MoreRelatedFaceboook, Myspace, Twitter, LinkedIn, Flickr, Foursquare, and YouTube1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe development of social media becomes more frequent in various parts of the world. It makes the field of public relations experience changes both in the field of theory and practice. The changes are not directly caused by the presence of social media, but social media offers many opportunities for public relations prac titioners to interact with the public through the adaptation of technology and integrate it into their daily activities (Curtis, 2010) Social media is defined as the democratizationRead MoreA Small Pond And A Big Pond799 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfate, she will be there for 8 weeks teaching us about Public Relations, at the moment she was working for the Public Relation Firm Ã¢â¬Å"NewlinkÃ¢â¬ . Usually people will receive a vocational speech in high school or middle school, mine was in half way of my bachelor. Public Relations started seeing so excited, being the individual in charge of the solutions to communications problems, the liaison of the communication between companies and their public sounded so interesting. Being able in those weeks to beRead MorePublic Relations the Impact of New Media1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic Relations amp; The Impact of New Media Public Relations is a pivotal part of any business because it is the most direct communication between the business and the public. For a business to enjoy long term success it has to have the ability to evolve and adapt with the ever changing trends of the public in order to understand the needs and concerns of the general public. Author and entrepreneur Deirdre K. Breakenridge (2008) states in her book PR 2.0 New Media, New Tools, New AudiencesRead MoreTylenol Murders Essay1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCrisis communication is an area of public relations that I find really fascinating. I enjoy learning about the proper steps that a professional takes when a company is pitted against a major crisis, and what they do in the face of chaos to turn the situation around and use the crisis in their own favor. One case study that exemplifies the degree to which a crisis can be managed effectively and a company can gain more respect by doing so is the case of the Chicago Tylenol Murders in 1982 . TheRead MorePublic Relations Essay818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Robert I. Wakefield probably gives one of the best definitions of Public Relations when he stated, All public relations should exist to preserve a consistent reputation and build relationships (This is PR 1). This is a very broad and generic scope that does not necessarily infer any type of ethical behavior nor implies any sense of right or wrong with what is generally referred to as spin. The bottom line for any company is to make a profit. Why else would they be in business? The book, ThisRead MoreThe Second Central Theme Religion And Exile1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmeans to control the public. For example, Second Reza Shah wanted to remove religion and place his traditional Persian heritage as founding rule of Iranian people. Removal of religion was mandatory for Second Reza to keep his absolute power within Iran. For example, when Second Reza ShahÃ¢â¬â¢s father was in power, he had religious clergy that guided him on action what were needed to be done within the state. When Reza Shah was exiled and his son Mohammad Reza Shah was appointed as the new ruler of Iran byRead More The History of Public Relations Essay1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The History of Public Relations nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The act of public relations dates back to 52 B.C.E. in ancient Rome and continues on today all around the world. Public relations is defined as the controlling factor that searches to form and maintain relationships between organizations, profit or non-profit and the public that are beneficial for both parties (Bates). The age of public relations as a profession evolved in the 20th Century, mainlyRead MoreCommunication Between Public And Private Sector1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Communication in Public Relation Richa Talati (84884) International Technological University Start Date: 10/8/2014 End Date: 10/18/2014 Abstract Today, in both the public and private sectors, accountability and, therefore, measurability are key principles of management. Increasingly, measurement and evaluation need to be more than anecdotal and informal. Objective rigorous methods are required that deliver credible proof of results and Return on Investment (ROI)Read MoreThe Plank Center For Leadership970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations has both indirect and direct competitors that serve as both an advantage and disadvantage when gaining the attention of their target audience. A direct competitor is any company that is built around the same principles as The Plank Center and provides similar resources and services. The Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations was established at The University of Alabama in 2015 and was established at to provides resources for practitionersRead MoreStrengthening Wales Institutional Capabilities1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescentralization coexist as the means to deliver public services into a wide range of bodies and partnerships. With the Labour Party in power, ministers have celebrated the potential of networks, partnerships, and market-type relationships as mechanisms of coordination as opposed to the Old Labour mechanisms of big bureaucracy and centralized rules (Laffin, 2009, p.6). The intergovernmental relations within England are focused on creating a competitive model by allowing public services to compete with each other
Monday, December 23, 2019
Of Mice and Men- CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. How does Steinbeck present CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife to the reader? What is her importance in the novel? In order to discuss how Steinbeck presents CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife to the reader one would determine that many readers would interpret her character and importance in many diversified ways. In this essay, one must elaborate on SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s true definition of the one and only female in the novel. First and foremost other females in the novel are mentioned but not greeted with a presence like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. A girl that Lennie scares in Ã¢â¬ËWeedÃ¢â¬â¢ is mentioned in a past tense and most importantly LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s Aunt Clara is mentioned several times where sometimes she can be perceived as the absent centre. Nonetheless the reader isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Steinbeck has quoted in the past, Ã¢â¬Å"CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is essentially a good and trusting person who grew up in an atmosphere of fighting and suspicionÃ¢â¬ . Her pretence of hardness is largely a sham. It is all that she knows. She is not particularly over-sexed, but has been forced to recognise that her sexuality is the only weapon she has and the only thing for which she is noticed. However, her weapon of sexuality backfires as it will be the death of her. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s naivety is finally seduced by her sexuality and he commits manslaughter on her as heÃ¢â¬â¢s unaware of his vast strength. Like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s weapon of sexuality, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s weapon is his amazing strength. In the situation of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s strength versus CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife sexuality, Lennies strength results in his demise just as CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife sexuality did. Ostensibly CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is capable of exuding a huge sexuality, but she combines it with innocence, vulnerability and an inability to enjoy sex. The vulnerable and insecure side of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is what makes her good and pure. She was almost certainly a virgin before she married Curley because she has had it preached at her so hard from her upbringing that it is the only way that she can get a husband. The narrators description of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife physical appearance is figuratively sexual Ã¢â¬Å"She had full rouged lipsÃ¢â¬ implies that her lips are for the purpose of kissing and possibly to perform fellatioShow MoreRelatedThe Influences of Curleys Wife on the Development of John Steinbecks novel, Of Mice and Men1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCurleys wife is an essential character for the development of John Steinbecks novel, Of Mice and Men, even though mysterious and nameless, she portrays the women of the 1930s, as well as emphasises their objectification and undermining. Curleys wife is also of great importance for developing the themes of dreaming as well as their downfall, the desire to be free and independent or essentially the American Dream. Finally, she also develops the theme of loneliness in the novel, as well as the themeRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the novel Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife is one of the many characters who represent a minority in the American society in the 1930s. In the award winning book, John Steinbeck provides many different aspects to the world he was living in at the time he wrote the novel: dreams, hopes and loneliness to name a few, all channelled through one mentality - prejudice. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife was one of the many characters that Steinbeck used to get his point across about prejudice with. She is not a complexRead MoreTo What Extent Does Steinbeck Portray Dreams as Futile in Ã¢â¬Ëof Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢?1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo what extent does Steinbeck portray dreams as futile in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢? In Of Mice and Men, the hopes and dreams of the men on the ranch are a continuous focus and theme throughout the novel. John Steinbeck portrays the effects that dreams, or lack of them, have on the lives of the characters and the outcome of the novel. Steinbeck uses the concept of dreams at once to show hope and aspiration, as they invoke companionship with united determination for a better future, and to illustrate theRead MoreJane Eyre And Of Mice And Men2621 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesExplore how women are presented in Ã¢â¬ËJane EyreÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ BrontÃ « and Steinbeck are arguably two of the most prominent writers in English literature, parted by a ninety year time span and a difference in pre occupations, which could be due to their difference in gender. Jane Eyre and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife are two of most different characters but similarly both used drive the plot. Both characters struggle to fit into society; Jane is belittled by her Aunt Reed and being kept apart from the otherRead MoreOf Mice and Men-Curleys Wife Analysis2542 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesOf Mice and MenÃ is a novel set on a ranch in the Salinas Valley in California, during theÃ Great DepressionÃ of the 1930s by John Steinbeck. It was the first work to bringÃ SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ national recognition as a writer. The book addresses the real hopes and dreams of working-class America. Steinbecks short novel raises the lives of the poor and dispossessed to a higher, symbolic level. The title suggests that plans of Mice and Men often go awry, a reference t o Robert BurnÃ¢â¬â¢s poem To a Mouse.Ã SinceRead MoreHow Does Steinbeck Present Disadvantaged Characters2537 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesin which Steinbeck presents disadvantaged characters in the novel In 1937, the American author John Steinbeck published Of mice and Men. Set in the Salinas Valley of California, it conveys the story of the struggles of the American people during The Great Depression. The Great Depression was a massive devastation throughout the whole of America where people suffered and the economy was at a huge crisis. The Unemployment rose from 3% to 26% and many people had died, showing how hard theRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men2167 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesJohn SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Of Mice and Men, George Milton and Lennie Small wander through California in search of a new job that would help them make enough money to live their American dream on Ã¢â¬Å"the fatta the lanÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Steinbeck 14). George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s hard work and determination is not enough for them to live their dream. Lennie has a mental disability that slows the two friends down from living their dream; they have to run from job to job because of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s unintentional actions. Steinbeck incorporates multipleRead MoreAnalysis Of Of Mice And Men 1839 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesreasons behind actions. Of Mice and Men and To Kill a Mockingbird both have a cyclical structure to them. In Of Mice and Men, it begins with George and Lennie by the pond, and it also ends in the same area. This gives the impression that circumstances have changed and, considering the fact that the descriptions are different, the opening scene could be seen to foreshadow the events that are to follow and lead up to. To Kill a Mockingbird is similar in structure to Of Mice and Men, but it is different inRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬ËWhat freedom men and women could have, were they not constantly tricked and trapped and enslaved and tortured by their sexualityÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â John Steinbeck illustrated that in this male dominated society women were prevented to bring to the table that which would have benefited all. Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Nobel Prize-winning author John Steinbeck in 1937, was set around the time of The Great Depression; a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of theRead MoreTo What Extent Is Of Mice and Men More Effective Than Rainman in Giving Us Understandings of Loneliness and Friendship?1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSteinbecks novel Of Mice and Men cannot accurately be compared in effectiveness of its themes with the movie Rainman. The importance of each theme differs in both- in Steinbecks novel, loneliness is the most dominant theme, and in Rainman the major theme is friendship. Levinson and Steinbeck both do a brilliant job at showing the major themes in both materials to the greatest of their potential, and the minor themes are somewhat overpowered because of this. One extremely clever way that
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Individual task outcomes should also be evaluated. The value of using common sets of evaluation criteria Is better in the long run because It will be the same across the board. This will make the process fair to all the employees that are being evaluated. We will write a custom essay sample on Let Task or any similar topic only for you Order Now To be evaluated on only one or two out of the three mentioned above would be unfair to all of the employees. If one employee was exceptional on behavior and Individual task outcomes and another employee was exception on behavior and traits rating on just behavior and traits would not be fair to the first employee. Rating employees on a broader scale produces better employees in the long run. They have the three areas that they can work on and excel to become a better fit for the organization. Now the 360-degree evaluation works by evaluating the employees on the set criteria however their direct supervisor is not the only person evaluating them. These evaluations are performed by the customers, suppliers, supervisors, and coworkers. This Is very diverse way of rating an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. One could have a certain behavior around the boss but once he/she Is out of sight the Individual may retreat other employees poorly. This Is a major advantage to a 360-degree evaluation since the employees have to keep a good rapport with all people they contact. On the other hand the 360-degree evaluation also has some disadvantages. I have an example that has happened to me and my co-workers due to an evaluation of this type. I worked for a large banking organization and we had phone contact with the customers discussing their credit card application. We either told them we approved them or if they were decline. No matter the decision, surveys were sent out Mandalay. No matter how nice and courteous I would be to someone if I did not approve them and give them a high enough credit line that survey would not come back with positive marks. Everyone found this out early on and began to give In to customer demands and thus the banks credit loses started to Increase. In this case the 360-degree can have negative Impacts on the company If the employees start to cater to one aspect of it and the employees if they do honest work and decline Commonly used methods of performance evaluations like written essays, graphic eating scales, and forced comparisons all have their similarities and differences. For instance written essays and rating scales both have to be filled out by the supervisor. They can relay the same evaluation in the end, but the written essay might mean more to an employee since it takes the manager more effort to write. On the other hand the written essay could be a bad thing if the writing skills of the managers are not up to par. Forced comparisons, like the other methods, are good at measuring and ranking your employees abilities, however ranking your employees can turn into popularity contest instead of a true ranking. I chose these three methods because my current employer uses a combination of all three. We have the graphical part that measures everyone on the same scale. Then we have the essay part which covers skills and goals not mentioned in the graphical part, and then the managers meet to rank all of the employees 1-5. I think when used in combination these three commonly used methods work the best. Used individually all 3 of these method also have biasÃ¢â¬â¢ and errors. As mentioned the essay method is only as good as the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to write the essay. If a manager is unable to string a complete sentence together the employee is not going to see the managers intentions through the written word. With the graphical method while easier for the managers since they have a form to fill out it can be ineffective since it only ranks the employees on the topics that are provided on the forms. A manager might have a specialized employee that does something that no other employee does but has no way of expressing this since it is a basic form. And the final method of forced comparisons ranks the employees as if it were a popularity notes. If manager is fond of 4 employees and only has 20 there is a good chance that those 4 employees will always rank in the top one fifth leaving an employee that does comparable or better work on the outside looking in. To improve the performance evaluation process in the given scenario I believe there should be multiple methods used to evaluate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity, behavior, and traits. To do this effectively the 360-degree method should be implemented but only allow it to account for 15% percent of the overall evaluation. This allows the co-workers and customers to get a say on how an individual is doing in those areas score. This should be done in a graphical method only so it is a fair evaluation to the individual. Next there should be a combination of the graphical method and the essay method for the direct manager/supervisor to evaluate the employee. This should account for 45% of the evaluation. The final 40% should be on productivity alone. In the scenario given the employee in question no doubt has superb productivity, but in the current method of evaluation the employee gets no credit for it. How to cite Let Task, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Write a description on Elder Abuse. Answer: Introduction This assignment aims to explore and critique the relevance and applicability of health promotion strategies to a health issue. The chosen health issue is Elder Abuse. Elder Abuse refers to any form of ill-treatment or cruelty that result in loss or harm to the aged individuals. It may take place as a result of negligence or ignorance or it may be intentional. Elder abuse is normally carried out by the members of the family, particularly by adult children because the older people are dependent on them for care and accommodation. It is also a violation of human rights and is an important cause of illness, injury, despair, isolation and loss of productivity. This assignment will also describe the health issues in detail and will utilize theories and frameworks in health promotion to provide a critical analysis of a chosen strategy to address the issue of health. In the end, a brief summary in the form of conclusion will be provided for the reader to learn in terms of addressing the heal th issue. Elder Abuse- Description This abuse may possibly be physical, mental, or it may engage financial or other substance abuse. Despite of the type of abuse, it unquestionably results in avoidable distress, harm or pain, decreased quality of life along with the violation of human rights, for the older individuals. Whether the behavior is called rude, negligent or abusive possibly depends on how often the ill-treatment takes place, its extent, harshness and consequences, and in particular, the cultural perspective (Bennett and Kingston 2013). Such abuses are commonly divided into the following types: Physical abuse involves pain or harm, physical oppression, or drug induced command. Emotional or psychological abuse- Leads to mental suffering. Material or Financial abuse- The illegal exploitation or utilization of resources of the older person. Sexual abuse Any kind of non-consensual intimate relationship with the older person. Neglect The denial or disappointment to accomplish a care giving compulsion. This may or may not engage a cognizant and deliberate effort to impose physical or mental suffering on the elderly person (Pillemer et al. 2016). Early researchers in this field involved individual behavior conflicts as underlying agents of violence in the family in support of cultural and societal factors. In recent times, however, research on violence in the family has revealed that abusers who are physically violent are more probable to have behavior disorders along with the problems related with alcohol in comparison to the common population. Likewise, studies limited to aggression in opposition to the older people in family settings have discovered that aggressors are more expected to possess the problems of mental health and substance abuse as compared to the caregivers or family members who are not aggressive or otherwise rude (Sadana et al. 2016). Chosen Strategy By using the Ottawa charter which was the first International Conference on Health Promotion, a meeting in Ottawa on 21stNovember 1986. It presented this CHARTER for action to attain Health for every one by the year 2000 and further. This symposium was mainly a response to increasing prospects for a new movement of public health around the globe. Its discussions stressed on the requirements in developed countries, and also took into consideration similar concerns in all the additional regions. It constructed on the advancement that was made through the Declaration on Primary Health Care at Alma Ata, the World Health Organization's Targets for Health (Fry and Zask 2016). Health Promotion Health promotion involves the process of facilitating individuals to enhance control, as well as to develop, their physical condition and wellbeing. To attain a status of absolute mental, physical along with societal welfare, a person or a group ought to be capable to recognize and to understand objectives, to gratify the requirements, and to alter or deal with the surroundings. Therefore health is perceived, as a source for existence, not the purpose of livelihood. It is a constructive perception emphasizing societal as well as individual resources, in addition to physical abilities. Consequently, promotion of health is not only the accountability of the health sector, but is also concerned with the healthy existence and welfare (Nies and McEwen 2014). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the occurrence of elder abuse varied extensively from 1% to 35%, depending on the definitions, settings, research methods and populations (Sadana et al. 2016). Current national approximations reveal that at least 1 in 10 older persons suffer from some type of elder abuse, and several in recurring forms (Bennett and Kingston 2013). Simultaneously, only a minute small part of elder abuse is reported to the Adult Protective Services (APS). A study by The National Elder Mistreatment with a representative sample of 5,000 adults aged 65 years and above, reports that around more than 15% of elderly adults dwelling in different communities experienced mistreatment or potential disregard in the precedent year (Naaldenberg et al. 2012). The self-neglect of elderly is repeatedly considered as a separate thing as contrasting to elder abuse committed by others. The data of APS proposes that self-neglect is on the rise and is more widespread in com parison to all of the other types of elder abuse combined. Current studies comprising a large population point towards the frequency of elder self-neglect is about 10%, even though the degree of overlap amid self-neglect and other types of elder abuse is indistinct (Pillemer et al. 2016). However, no population-based epidemiological study has methodically scrutinized the occurrence of elder self-neglect or the latent alteration in self-neglecting behaviors eventually (Dong 2014). Several nurses observe the theory of health promotion as something which they indistinctly remember from academia and exceptionally a small number of them would claim to utilize the theory of health promotion in practice (Kelley et al. 2013). The good news is we dont need to keep in mind the whole theory to utilize the theory. There are several widespread essentials in the theories of health promotion that can be included in everyday practice. There are five ways to utilize the health promotion theory with the patients (Beard et al. 2016). Promote the advantages of alteration and not just the advantages of health The individuals have a tendency to focus on altering behavior being good however frequently the patients come across difficulty to enumerate benefits of health that are twenty years or more down the line. Advantages are acknowledged in a number of theoretical models and substantial advantages can consist of saving wealth, losing weight or making new friends. Utilization of the resources to assist the individuals promote the temporary benefits is another advantage, for instance the websites that are concerned with the calculation of money the individuals can save by quitting the habit of smoking (Merriman-Nai and Stein 2014). Promote behavioral control of the patient A characteristic of a number of models of health promotion is the role of behavioral control or self-efficiency. This is the perception of the patient regarding their individual ability to be capable of accomplishing something. The patients having low self-efficiency are less probable to transform. They need to be optimistic with the patients and motivate them so that they can accomplish their goal. They need to focus on small objectives such as swapping rather than stopping. (Dong et al. 2014). Recognize obstacles to change Several theoretical models recognize that barriers bring to halt several efforts of behavior change. The patients should be asked what they consider would stop them attaining a behavior, For instance quitting the habit of smoking along with how they prepare to prevail over this barrier. For instance barriers to quitting the habit of smoking comprise of pressure from acquaintances, practice and desires. (Maville and Huerta 2012). Identify the wider surroundings The surrounding is an essential aspect of behavior alteration. Security, interchange along with aesthetics could discourage aloofness, unfamiliarity and humiliation. For instance, if we want to motivate a patient to work out more then we need the capability to guide them to sociable, secure spaces (Baer et al. 2016). Modify information to the patient For instance, if we work with kids, we perhaps converse health information by utilizing uncomplicated words or representations. The similar tailoring philosophy should also pertain to other patients; such as presenting information in a diverse language or huge print. Identify those patients that are at dissimilar stages of alteration. For instance does the patient possess all the information they require? Are they extremely conversant? Have they attempted to alter earlier? What is preventing them from altering? Being a superior sign poster could assist us to modify information. If in case, the patients want support to alter a behavior, a number of them would have a preference for a website and others may just desire to do it individually. The patients should be asked regarding their preference as well as suggestions accordingly. Strategies of Health Promotion and Abuse Prevention for the Elderly people An inclusive strategy to prevent elderly abuse may possibly be dealt with in the framework of public health from a perspective of population health by addressing health determinants. This could take the structure of encouraging accommodation, societal support as well as health support for older people in their homes (Dong 2014). The programs of community can support the older people and encourage healthy aging in the population. The service by the providers of the Community is an outstanding resource for avoiding elder mistreatment. The nurses in Home care or care providers may possibly recognize signs of mistreatment that may otherwise go unobserved. A home care plan included into Medicare can prevent a steady approach where perceptions and terminology differ (Kelley et al. 2013). The tools of elder abuse prevention can be developed from a widespread outline, offering enhanced incorporation of interventions and services for the victims of mistreatment, regardless of what their circumstances were/are. Registered nurses are in outstanding positions to collaborate with government, stakeholders of health as well as society and lead successfully in such a strategy. In the course of their specific learning and knowledge, as well as time spent with the patients along with families across the range of care as well as across the lifetime, they observe exceptionally authentic revelations of the effects of disregard as well as abuse (Perna et al. 2012). The federal government should develop an inclusive strategy of health promotion along with abuse prevention for the older people. This should comprise of targeted programs that are intended in the services of public health, caring accommodation as well as tax credits for older people. This should comprise a rapid focus on the populations that are exaggerated by circumstances that create susceptibility (Jordanova Peshevska et al. 2014). Conclusion In the end, it can be concluded that the problem of elderly abuse cannot be appropriately solved if the important requirements of the elderly people such as for food, accommodation, access to health as well as safety are not met. The populations of the globe ought to construct surroundings in which elderly individuals and their state of mind is accepted as a normal component of the cycle of life. The attitudes of anti-ageing are down casted, where elderly individuals are given the right to survive with self-respect, free of abuse and mistreatment. They should be provided with the opportunities to involve themselves completely in educational, religious, economic and cultural activities. The present generations need as well as expect guidance and investments to make sure a full understanding of the situation. They need to recognize important policies along with programmatic practices, to progress established initiatives and to supervise their performances. Consequently, promotion of health is not only the accountability of the health sector, but is also concerned with the healthy existence and welfare The federal government possesses an opportunity to make efforts with regional and territorial equivalents along with the health professionals, such as registered nurses as well as nurse practitioners, with the intention to recover the health as well as well-being of the elderly people. These recommendations correspond to an important step in the direction of a secure and vigorous future where self-respect and admiration for the elders is a right, not an extravagance. References Baer, B., Bhushan, A., Taleb, H.A., Vasquez, J. and Thomas, R., 2016. The right to health of older people.The Gerontologist,56(Suppl 2), pp.S206-S217. Beard, J.R., Officer, A.M. and Cassels, A.K., 2016. The World Report on Ageing and Health.The Gerontologist,56(Suppl 2), pp.S163-S166. Bennett, G. and Kingston, P.W., 2013.Elder abuse: Concepts, theories and interventions. Springer. Dong, X., 2014. Elder abuse: Research, practice, and health policy. The 2012 GSA Maxwell Pollack award lecture.The Gerontologist,54(2), pp.153-162. Dong, X., Chang, E.S., Wong, E., Wong, B. and Simon, M.A., 2014. 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